In Part One of my series on Pelagius, I had previously discussed the historical context in which Pelagius developed his doctrines regarding grace and free will. Additionally I mentioned the three types of graces that Pelagius believed in: die Schöpfungsgnade (creation grace), die Offenbarungsgnade (revealed grace), and die Vergebungsgnade (pardoning grace). For the discussion of Creation Grace, see Part One. In this post, Pelagius’ views on Offenbarungsgnade or Revealed Grace are outlined.
Die Offenbarungsgnade: Revealed Grace
As with Creation Grace, Pelagius’ Revealed Grace can be divided into two parts: A and B. As a whole, Pelagius believed that Revealed Grace was concerned with acknowledging God’s natural law. Although Pelagius did not believe that the Fall of Man entailed a change in the essence of humanity, he did believe that this Fall entailed the clouding or blinding of mankind’s ability to see or know the will of God and thereby natural law clearly. Pelagius saw this type of grace at work throughout the scriptures, particularly in the Old Testament. He felt that the Revealed Grace worked as a sort of process, which led to true knowledge (Erkenntnis), but not necessarily salvation (Vergebung). The Mosaic Law itself was part of a process that led human law (Gesetz im Verhältnis) to develop more closely to the original and lost natural law (natürlichen Gesetz), which lay in accord with God’s will. This was an integral part for Part A of Revealed Grace. By this means of argument, Pelagius was able to counter the arguments of both the Marconians and the Manichees: that the Old Testament God could not have been the same as the God of the New Testament, because of the stark differences between the two. For Pelagius, the Old Testament foretold the coming of Christ and was a necessary step for the salvation of all of mankind.
Part B of Revealed Grace entails an individual’s belief in Christ as the messiah. For Pelagius, the belief in Jesus Christ as the Son of God the Father was an endpoint in the intellectual endeavor of Revealed Grace. In particular, Pelagius discussed the Jews and their own rejection of Christ. In a moment that betrays the common antisemitism of the day, Pelagius went as far as to claim that the Jews crucified Christ (instead of the Romans) because they did not believe in him. According to Pelagius, the rejection of Christ necessarily leads to the failure to grasp the full truth contained within the Old Testament. Here Pelagius was possibly alluding to the vast amount of exegeses of his day, such as the works by Origen, Tychonius, etc. or the sort of exegesis that occurs throughout Paul’s letter to the Hebrews, all of which provided insights as to how the texts of the Old Testament relate to the New Covenant. The lack of the full truth consequently leads to the formation of false knowledge. This formation of false knowledge is not necessarily rooted in malice, Pelagius argues, but rather in ignorance. In short, the rejection of Christ stunts the spiritual growth of the individual, even if they are a morally upright person.
I hope to finish my discussion of Pelagius in my next post, where I will discuss his concept of die Vergebungsgnade (Forgiving Grace) and then conclude with my own thoughts on Pelagius as a whole. In the meantime, what strikes me as interesting is that Pelagius implicitly admits that those who are not Christian can still make morally justified choices. In other words, one must not necessarily be Christian or perhaps even religious to make moral choices, according to Pelagius. The reason for such is solely because the human being is not totally depraved, but merely clouded in judgment. Since unveiling one’s eyes is a process, Pelagius admits that there are a variety of stages of moral progress unto which one proceeds back towards the perfect knowledge of natural law (natürlichen Gesetz).